Understanding the environmental factors affecting the microbiota in malaria vectors may help in the development of novel vector control interventions, similar to paratransgenesis. This study evaluated seasonal and geographical variations in the microbial community of the two major malaria vectors. Adult Anopheles mosquitoes were collected across two different eco-geographical settings in Cameroon, during the dry and wet seasons. DNA was extracted from the whole individual mosquitoes from each group and processed for microbial analysis using Illumina Miseq sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Data analysis was performed using QIIME2 and R software programs. A total of 1985 mosquitoes were collected and among them, 120 were selected randomly corresponding to 30 mosquitoes per season and locality. Overall, 97 bacterial taxa were detected across all mosquito samples, with 86 of these shared between dry and wet seasons in both localities and species. There were significant differences in bacterial composition between both seasons, with a clear separation observed between the dry and wet seasons (PERMANOVA comparisons of beta diversity, Pseudo-F = 10.45; q-value = 0.01). This study highlights the influence of seasonal variation on microbial communities and this variation’s impact on mosquito biology and vectorial capacity should be further investigated.