Integrated disease management: arboviral infections and waterborne diarrhoea


Water-related diseases such as diarrhoeal diseases from viral, bacterial and parasitic organisms and Aedes-borne arboviral diseases are major global health problems. We believe that these two disease groups share common risk factors, namely inadequate household water management, poor sanitation and solid waste management. Where water provision is inadequate, water storage is essential. Aedes mosquitoes commonly breed in household water storage containers, which can hold water contaminated with enteric disease-causing organisms. Microbiological contamination of water between source and point-of-use is a major cause of reduced drinking water quality. Inadequate sanitation and solid waste management increase not only risk of water contamination, but also the availability of mosquito larval habitats. In this article we discuss integrated interventions that interrupt mosquito breeding while also providing sanitary environments and clean water. Specific interventions include improving storage container design, placement and maintenance and scaling-up access to piped water. Vector control can be integrated into sanitation projects that target sewers and drains to avoid accumulation of stagnant water. Better management of garbage and solid waste can reduce the availability of mosquito habitats while improving human living conditions. Our proposed integration of disease interventions is consistent with strategies promoted in several global health frameworks, such as the sustainable development goals, the global vector control response, behavioural change and water, sanitation and hygiene initiatives. Future research should address how interventions targeting water, sanitation, hygiene and community waste disposal also benefit Aedes-borne disease control. The projected effects of climate change mean that integrated management and control strategies will become increasingly important.

Bulletin of the World Health Organization